: Berlin : Staatsbibliothek, 2008. Persons who perhaps doubt in the reality of the enter world may be found in the asylums and on the philosophic platform; whether the doubting mind is a patient or a philosopher shows itself quickly in the consequences: the philosopher includes that doubt within an harmonious life plan, the patient's life is destroyed by his insane doubt. [p. 64] Wherever the speech intonation agreed with that of the whole song, they acknowledged the authentic origin, and where it did not agree they recognised an interpolation of the text. The second clenches his fist and cries, "If you say another word --" The first draws a revolver. We are too easily inclined to confuse the idea of truth in a subjective and in an objective sense. Dr. Christison has set forth the entire murder case in a brilliant pamphlet which few will study without becoming convinced that an innocent man has suffered death by the rope on account of untrue confessions. Then her eyes became fixed upon one of the shining brass lamps in the church, and of a sudden all was changed. [sic] of the statements were absolutely false, in spite of the fact that they all came from scientifically trained observers. Court and jury had evidently done their best to find the facts and to weigh the evidence; they are not to be expected to be experts in the analysis of unusual mental states. When I talk of dreams in my university courses of psychology, I speak of them just as a blind man might speak of colours. Hugo Münsterberg (June 1, 1863 – December 16, 1916) was a German-American psychologist.He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to Industrial/Organizational (I/O), legal, medical, clinical, educational and business settings.Münsterberg encountered immense turmoil with the outbreak of the First World War. Münsterberg's contention that false confessions were a normal phenomena triggered by unusual circumstances was recently brought to light in the circumstances surrounding the John Mark Karr case. Münsterberg encountered immense turmoil with the outbreak of the First World War. She felt it as a spiritual "conversion" to health, and the complete change of her mental personality was indeed most surprising. Many of us remember minutes in which we passed through an experience with a distinct and almost uncanny feeling of having passed through it once before. We know, above all, the inhibitory influences which result from excitements and emotions which may completely change the products of an otherwise faithful memory. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. No doubt, the chances for such influences were different, too, at various times and in different social conditions. I had thus never examined the other hypothesis, and yet it was found later that they did succeed in removing the lock of a door. In this way, in spite of my best intentions, in spite of good memory and calm mood, a whole series of confusions, of illusions, of forgetting, of wrong conclusions, and of yielding to suggestions were mingled with what I had to report under oath, and my only consolation is the fact that in a thousand courts at a thousand places all over the world, witnesses every day affirm by oath in exactly the same way much worse mixtures of truth and untruth, combinations of memory and of illusion, of knowledge and of suggestion, of experience and wrong conclusions. We know the stubborn mind which cannot be persuaded by any logical argument and which sticks to its fixed ideas, and we know the suggestible mind which follows the last hint and believes everything, or at least everything which is printed. Wigmore, J H, "Professor Muensterberg and the Psychology of Testimony being a Report of the Case of Cokestone v Muensterberg" (1909) 3 Illinois LR 399 Wigmore, J H, Evidence in Trials at Common Law (rev by James H Chadbourn (1961- 1972) [cover title Wigmore on Evidence] 1 Selling the Psychological Detective Hugo Münsterberg’s Applied Psychology and The Achievements of Luther Trant, 1907–30 In his 1908 collection of essays, On the Witness Stand: Essays on Psychology and Crime,Hugo Münsterberg expounds upon one of the principles that … Whether the crime was done in a state of mental responsibility is certainly a question never neglected. Dreams are hallucinations [p. 157] which become harmless only because the impulses to action become ineffective during sleep. Yet, the psychologist can hardly glance over such letters without wishing that the public at least might know how much wiser it would be to consult a detective. The Case of Hugo Munsterberg.” ... Münsterberg, Hugo. A colleague once wanted me to hypnotise him because he had just, in his fortieth year, discovered that he had no power of optical remembering; he hoped to get it through hypnosis, and yet he had never missed it until he read of it in a psychological book. From the time that I was arrested I do not believe that I was myself for a moment, until after I was over here in the jail. But he is expected to make up his mind as to whether the memory ideas of a witness are objective reproductions of earlier experience or are mixed up with associations and suggestions. But slowly all this leads over into the borderland region. He feels the duty of putting his best will into the effort to reproduce the whole truth and nothing but the truth. It is the same way in which common-sense [p. 66] tells a man what kind of diet is most nourishing. Hugo Münsterberg's Psychology and Law: A Historical and Contemporary Assessment: Amazon.it: Bornstein, Brian H., Neuschatz, Jeffrey: Libri in altre lingue Münsterberg's legacy: What does eyewitness research tell us about the reliability of eyewitness testimony? The sound which I produced was the tone of a large tuning-fork, which I struck with a … The whole affair took less than twenty seconds. When he came to the police station, he was told at once that he was the guilty man; but the accused denied everything. It is, for instance, interesting to see how the neurasthenic states are slowly recognised by the courts in civil suits as real bodily disturbance, while a short time ago they were still considered as mere imaginations and illusory complaints. Now the police began to press him and to suggest more and more impressively to him his guilt. She. In 1908 he published On the Witness Stand, which was influential to the development of forensic psychology. The church was empty and, as she communed with herself, her hopelessness deepened. Hugo Münsterberg's Psychology and Law: A Historical and Contemporary Assessment American Psychology-Law Society Series: Amazon.es: Bornstein, Brian H., … Today this book is used as a reference for many issues in forensic psychology. Has the court sufficient means at hand to convince the jury that it must weigh all the evidence with a fair consideration of these not pathological, yet very influential, mental variations? Every one of these features of a mental physiognomy may grow till its caricature stands before us as disease, and everywhere there are [p. 155] many steps between the extremes of pleasant originality of character and the saddest mental abeyance. Moreover, this stupid boy would be the last to be able to invent suddenly a long story which fits so exactly in every detail the clinical experiences of the nervous physician and the mental experiences of the psychologist. Hugo Münsterberg, German-American psychologist and philosopher who was interested in the applications of psychology to law, business, industry, medicine, teaching, and sociology. We may consider here still another point which is more directly connected with our purpose. Even the self-accusations and the self-destructive despair of the melancholic find their counterpart in the realm of normal life; the pessimist is too often inclined to torture himself by opprobriums, to feel discouraged with himself, and to feel guilty without real guilt. Now we should not ask a short-sighted man for the slight visual details of a far distant scene, yet it cannot be safer to ask a man of the acoustical memory type for strictly optical recollections. It excludes the careless, hasty, chance recollection, and stirs the deliberate attention of the witness. "Harvard's Contempt of Court" is the big heading here, "Science Gone [p. 140] Crazy" the heading there, and so it went on in the papers, while every mail brought an epistolary chorus. The second [p. 50] rushes madly upon him. There are others with whom every tune can easily resound in recollection and who can hardly read a letter of a friend without hearing his voice in every word, while they are utterly unable to awake an optical [p. 62] image. Hugo Munsterberg published a book entitled as “On the Witness Stand” in 1908 which stirred a lot of controversies. The earnestness with which caution is urged is decidedly different at different periods; the danger of accepting confessions seems to have been felt more strongly at [p. 144] some times than at others. Scores of memory variations can be discriminated. When I saw that they had treated me mildly, inasmuch as they had started in the wine cellar and had forgotten under its genial influence, on the whole, what they had come for, I had taken only a superficial survey. It seemed most natural that the President should beg the members to write down individually an exact report, inasmuch as he felt sure that the matter would come before the courts. I wondered why a revolver should be pointed at me,'" and so forth. In it, he explained that psychology was vital in the courtroom, how suggestion could create false memories and why eyewitness testimony was often unreliable (Tartakovsky, 2011). Münsterberg encountered immense turmoil with the outbreak of the First World War. As to the clothes, I had simply forgotten that I had put several suits in a remote wardrobe; only later did I find it empty. Whenever the visions were given to the protocol before-hand, the percentage of true realisations remains completely within the narrow limits of chance coincidents and natural probability. Historical treatments of Hugo Münsterberg have been less than adequate. On the Witness Stand Essays on Psychology and Crime 1908 [Leather Bound] [Hugo Münsterberg] on Amazon.com. Search Browse; Resources If the accused acknowledges in express words the guilt in a criminal charge, the purpose of the procedure seems to have been reached; and yet at all times and in all nations experience has suggested a certain distrust of confessions. The Professor had spoken about a book. Yet I felt sure that he was innocent. No mental explanation is in order till the facts themselves are cleared up by methods for which the scholar is not prepared at all. The smallest number of mistakes gave twenty-six per cent. He analyzed different psychological factors that are responsible for altering the outcomes of trials, in this book. Münsterberg, HugoWORKS BY MüNSTERBERG SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY Hugo Münsterberg (1863-1916) made his greatest contribution by applying psychology to practical situations in education, medicine, law, and business. The Duchy of Münsterberg (German: Herzogtum Münsterberg) or Duchy of Ziębice (Polish: Księstwo Ziębickie, Czech: Minstrberské knížectví) was one of the Duchies of Silesia, with a capital in Münsterberg (Ziębice). The sources of error begin, of course, before the recollection sets in. The preposterous accusations were for them too sufficient proof of guilt, and not to confess appeared to them as obstinacy. Self-Projection: Hugo Münsterberg on Empathy and Oscillation in Cinema Spectatorship - Volume 25 Issue 3 - Robert Michael Brain of the characteristic acts; fourteen had twenty to forty per cent. She went into a trance-like state in which many disconnected memories of her early life and of happy times rushed to her consciousness, each accompanied by emotion, and these long-forgotten emotions of happiness persisted. Months have passed since the neck of the young man was broken and "thousands of persons crowded Michigan Street, jamming that thoroughfare from Clark Street to Dearborn Avenue, waiting for the undertaker's wagon to leave the jail yard." IT is a sad story which I am going to report, a weird tragedy of yesterday. It is in this way only that the oath by its religious [p. 48] background and by its connection with threatened punishment can work for truth. Any imaginative thought may slip into our consciousness and may carry with it in the same way that curious feeling that it is merely the repetition of something we have experienced before. There is no less a transitional region for all the other mental activities. A concrete illustration may indicate the method of the experimenters. I think it does matter who may be the criminal -- whether the one whom they hanged or somebody else who is still to-day in freedom. During the last eighteen years I have delivered about three thousand university lectures. Hugo Münsterberg (/ˈmʊnstərbɜːrɡ/; June 1, 1863 – December 16, 1916) was a German-American psychologist. They looked at each picture for fifteen seconds [p. 55] and then wrote a full report of everything they could remember. It was the one missing link in the chain of evidence of his innocence. It is so much easier everywhere to be satisfied with sharp demarcation lines and to listen only to a yes or no; the man is sane or insane, and if he is sane, he speaks the truth or he lies. I suppose I must have made those statements, since they all say I [p. 170] did. (Die digitale Bibliothek) The most essential condition remained, of course, always the complete naïveté of the witnesses, as the slightest suspicion on their part would destroy the value of the experiment. No one on the witness stand is to-day examined to ascertain in what directions his memory is probably trustworthy and reliable; he may be asked what he has seen, what he has heard, what he as spoken, how he has acted, and yet even a most superficial test might show that the mechanism of his memory would be excellent for one of these four groups of questions and utterly useless for the others, however solemnly he might keep his oath. Prince has recently analysed and described. The untrustworthiness of memory under all such conditions has nothing whatever to do with [p. 160] the intentions and the veracity of the witness. But variations they are, nevertheless, and only the psychologist may be clearly aware of their tendencies. [p. 47] The administration of an oath is partly responsible for the wrong valuation of the evidence. All this is a popular illusion against which modern psychology must seriously protest. I took it thus gladly as a noble outburst of Chicago feeling against my "long-distance impudence" that a leading paper resumed the situation in this way: "Illinois has quite enough of people with an itching mania for attending to other people's business without importing impertinence from Massachusetts. Through all those weeks of his half-dazed condition, he had never made the least effort to weaken his so-called confessions or to protect himself in any way. If we cannot remember our previous experience, and if, in addition to it, our own imagination deceives us by the delusion of pseudo-memories, we are of course completely lost in the social world, and the care of the asylum alone can protect us against utter destruction. May it not be in a similar way that the effort for correct recollection under oath may prove powerless to a degree which public opinion underestimates? She could not remember that anything had happened which might have influenced her; but when the physician hypnotised her in the interest of her ailments, everything [p. 168] became clear. The sound which I produced was the tone of a large tuning-fork, which I struck with a … Hugo Münsterberg (/ ˈ m ʊ n s t ər b ɜːr ɡ /; June 1, 1863 – December 16, 1916) was a German-American psychologist.He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to industrial/organizational (I/O), legal, medical, clinical, educational and business settings. That alone gave a hint that my house also had been entered; but from the first moment he insisted that there had been two in this burglary and that the other [p. 43] man had the remainder of the booty. Our mind has to sift and sift. The last pair has, of course, the advantage in that it sticks to the mind from its position at the end; it remains the most recent, which is not inhibited by any following pair. This steady correspondence between the normal, slight variations and the hopeless disturbances, and the small steps of transition between the extremes are shown perhaps nowhere more clearly than in the field of memory. We know and can test with the subtlest means the waves of fluctuating attention through which [p. 65] ideas become reinforced and weakened. Hugo Münsterberg's Psychology and Law: A Historical and Contemporary Assessment (American Psychology-Law Society Series) eBook: Bornstein, Brian H., Neuschatz, Jeffrey: Amazon.com.au: Kindle Store Search Browse; Resources [p. 150] Hysterical and autohypnotic states may there combine with otherwise perfectly normal behaviour, and pseudo-confessions may thus arise in men who are distinctly not ill. A slight dissociation of mind may set in which does not suggest calling for the physician at all, and which may yet affect profoundly the admissions made by the accused person. We are not always sure that our functions run best when we concentrate our effort on them and turn the full light of attention on the details. There may be only one among thirty or forty who cannot distinguish at a distance the red from the green lantern. Münsterberg produced more than a dozen major books, including his best known works On the Witness Stand (1908), Psychology General and Applied (1914b), and Psychology and Industrial Efficiency (1913b). My letter somehow reached the papers and I became the target for editorial sharp-shooters everywhere. I expressed this as my wish at that time, repeatedly. For many years no murder case had so deeply excited the whole city. When psychologist Hugo Münsterberg published his book On the Witness Stand (1908), he was hoping to influence the legal system to accept evidence from psy-chology in the same way it accepted evidence from other branches of science. Hugo Münsterberg (/ ˈ m ʊ n s t ər b ɜːr ɡ /; June 1, 1863 – December 16, 1916) was a German-American psychologist.He was one of the pioneers in applied psychology, extending his research and theories to industrial/organizational (I/O), legal, medical, clinical, educational and business settings. He may still be witness against others; but the confessions of crime which he claims to have committed himself cannot be considered as evidence under any circumstances. All of his friends thought him decidedly trusting and credulous and absent-minded. The psychologist, of course, has to reduce the complex facts to simple principles and elements. Haywood is to be settled in Boise, Idaho by the verdict of a jury, after the jury has heard, and soberly considered all the evidence in the case. While I was with my family at the seashore my city house had been burglarised and I was called upon to give an account of my findings against the culprit whom they had caught with a part of the booty. The variations remain, of course, mostly within the limits of normal life, as we have to call normal every setting which harmonises with the life purposes of the individual. As a matter of course, the opposite can thus happen, too; that is, an earlier experience may come to our memory stripped of every reference to the past, standing before our mind like a completely new product of imagination. Her body was found, by the unfortunate defendant, lying face downwards on a manure pile in a barnyard. But besides the omissions there were only six among the forty which did not contain positively wrong statements; in twenty-four papers up to ten per cent, of the statements were free inventions, [p. 53] and in ten answers -- hat is, in one-fourth of the papers, -- more than ten per cent. The officers who inspected the premises found the woman's hat at her Feet, but could discover no evidence whatsoever of & scuffle having taken place. Yet what responsible physician would ignore the painstaking experiments of the physiological laboratory, determining exactly the quantitative results as to the nourishing value of eggs or milk or meat or bread? After his appointment as an He cannot even have understood that this flash of steel worked like the shining brass lamp in Dr. Rich material has been gathered, and yet practical jurisprudence is, on the whole, still unaware of it; and while the alienist is always a welcome guest in the court room, the psychologist is still a stranger there. The Professor steps between them and, as he grasps the man's arm, the revolver goes off. Japans kunst mit 161 textabbildungen und Stafeln in farbendruck (1908) (Reprint) [Leatherbound] Münsterberg, Oskar, 1865-1920. He will ask only whether the intention alone is sufficient for success and whether the memory is really improved in every respect by increased attention. He was a pioneer in industrial psychology, and held controversial views on the reliability of witness testimony. Somewhere in the same street there was that evening a public festivity of the carnival. The discussion is thus long since removed to the sphere of theoretical argument; and so the hour may be more favourable now for asking [p. 143] once more whether it is really "inconceivable" that an innocent man can confess to a crime of which he is wholly ignorant. Leather Binding on Spine and Corners with Golden Leaf Printing on round Spine (extra customization on request like complete leather I was thus under the most favourable conditions for speaking the whole truth and nothing but the truth, and, as [p. 41] there is probably no need for the assurance of my best intentions, I felt myself somewhat alarmed in seeing how many illusions had come in. This crime itself, no matter [p. 142] who may be the criminal, was one of the frightful fruits of a sickly paltering with the stern administration of law. York University, Toronto, Ontario. Münsterberg's legacy: ... participants were highly trained, careful observers whose attention was concentrated on the material (Mu¨nsterberg, 1908, cited by Dolyle, ... ARCHIVAL AND FIELD STUDIES Archival studies typically rely on police ﬁles of cases that have been prosecuted. Essays on Psychology and Crime Hugo Münsterberg (1908/1925) Foreword (by Charles S. Whitman) ... even the size of the courtroom in some cases. ... ARCHIVAL AND FIELD STUDIES Archival studies typically rely on police ﬁles of cases that have been prosecuted. They go on thinking that their legal instinct and their common sense supplies them with all that is needed and somewhat more” (p. 11). Of course, everyone knows that the oath helps in at least one more direction in curbing misstatements. The first starts up, exclaiming, "You have insulted me!" Border with social science: Eyewitness testimony- Münsterberg was the first psychologist to research the fallibility of eyewitness testimony and the coerced extraction of confessions. All that is still normal; there is no education and no art, no politics and no religion without suggestion, and yet suggestion is certainly to a high degree a suppression of objective memory. The [p. 60] real present occurrence completely transforms the reminiscences of the past prophecy and every happening is apperceived with the illusory overtone of having been foreseen. Psychology has had to furnish the patent medicine for all the defects of our schools, psychology has become the word to conjure with in literature and religion, in social troubles and economic emergencies, and the public can hardly imagine how a psychologist's mail is burdened with inquiries from superstitious and unbalanced minds and with reports of uncanny and mysterious happenings.[p. The psychologist feels no difficulty in explaining it, but it ought to stand as a great warning signal before the minds of those who believe that the feeling of certainty in recollection secures objective truth. Hugo Münsterberg edit Extracted from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - Original source - History - Webmasters Guidelines Aree della Conoscenza K i d S and T … Yet, who will decide when the limit is reached where we forget and supplement too much: nowhere is the borderland region broader and nowhere more important for the psychology of the court-room. The detective may bring out much evidence which lies outside of the realm of physicians, which yet may be a closed book to the naïve view of psychical life. But it is evident that this suppressing and supplementing of memory ideas makes us unfit for life when it assumes large proportions. Yes, we fill the blanks of our perceptions constantly with bits of reproduced memory material and take those reproductions for immediate impressions. Yes, it can be said that, while the court makes the fullest use of all the modern scientific [p. 45] methods when, for instance, a drop of dried blood is to be examined in a murder case, the same court is completely satisfied with the most unscientific and haphazard methods of common prejudice and ignorance when a mental product, especially the memory report of a witness, is to be examined. MENU. The results of this case deemed some psychologists are qualified to be called upon as experts to give testimony on mental disorders (Jenkins v. United States, 2014). There was, for instance, two years ago in Göttingen a meeting of a scientific association, made up of jurists, psychologists, and physicians, all, therefore, men well trained in careful observation. Where the alienist has to speak, that is, where pathological amnesia destroys the memory of the witness, or where hallucinations of disease, or fixed ideas deprive the witness's remembrance of their value, there the psychologist is not needed. Truly, as long as a demand for further psychological inquiry appeared to the masses simply as "another way of possibly cheating justice" and as a method tending "towards emasculating court procedure and discouraging and disgusting every faithful officer of the law," the newspapers were almost in duty bound to rush on in the tracks of popular prejudice. The testimonies show that the young man was everywhere regarded as a thoughtful, obliging fellow of exceptionally good disposition, but often exhibiting marked stupidity. In a state of mental responsibility is certainly a question never neglected encountered... Mortar luminance was realised by Fraser ( 1908 ) mind also the case Hugo! 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