Water is considered a scarce good rather than a free good because: The problem of determining what goods and services society should produce exists because: A free good is different from a scarce good because it is: The statement that "there is no such thing as a free lunch" means: B) any production requires the use of scarce resources, and thus the sacrifice of another alternative. Animals that are given testosterone develop enlarged hearts. To examine the association between male pattern baldness and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events. In a systematic review of observational studies of anabolic steroid use, androgen administration was associated with lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and higher total-HDL cholesterol ratios.28 Induction of experimental hypogonadism with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (Nal-Glu) for 6 weeks increased HDL levels by 26% and total cholesterol levels by 12% among healthy young men.  L Gonadal hormones modulate deoxycorticosterone-salt hypertension in male and female rats. doi:10.1001/archinte.160.2.165. High levels of bilirubin are associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) [ 1 ]. Of the 22,071 randomized subjects in the PHS, 20,294 were alive at the 11-year follow-up. The correlation between hyperhomocysteinemia and atherosclerotic disease was first proposed more than 40 years ago. The observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that: D) there is probably some other factor that causes both baldness and heart disease.  LABelanger © 2020 American Medical Association.  BW The Kockum Study: twenty-two year follow-up–coronary heart disease in a population in the south of Sweden. Men with severe baldness seem to have a greater number of androgen receptors in the scalp16 and higher levels of both serum total and free testosterone.17 In a recent trial with finasteride,18 a drug that inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in scalp and other tissue by blocking the 5α reductase enzyme, arrest of hair loss and substantial hair regrowth were noted among men receiving the agent.  GA Ischemic heart disease and stroke mortality in African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white men and women, 1985 to 1991. determines: C) how resources are combined in the production of goods. In addition, the self-report of baldness pattern by questionnaire (Figure 1) was not internally validated and may have been a source of misclassification. 1 - 8 In the Framingham Heart Study, 5 progression of hair loss during adulthood was associated with CHD in men, although there was no relationship with the extent of scalp baldness. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to control for age (1-year categories), aspirin and beta carotene assignment, body mass index (weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters as a continuous variable), height (as a continuous variable), cigarette smoking (never, past, <20 cigarettes per day, ≥20 cigarettes per day), alcohol consumption (daily, weekly, monthly, rarely/never), hypertension (self-reported systolic blood pressure ≥160 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≤95 mm Hg, or taking antihypertensive medication), high serum cholesterol level (self-reported cholesterol level ≥6.47 mmol/L [250 mg/dL] or taking cholesterol-lowering medication), parental history of MI before age 60 years, and frequency of vigorous exercise (0, 1, 2-4, ≥5 times per week).  JrAufdemorte The studies have found that bald -headed men are 32 percent more predisposed to suffer from heart trouble than full-headed men. Lotufo PA, Chae CU, Ajani UA, Hennekens CH, Manson JE.  JP Testosterone exacerbates hypertension and reduces pressure-natriuresis in male spontaneously hypertensive rats. Gallant This renders the endothelium an active participant in healthy homeostasis of the vascular wall that includes normal vasomotion, inhibition of platelet aggregation and thrombus generation, and maintenance of relative impermeability. angioplasty, … The Copenhagen Heart Study8 observed 5837 men over 12 years and assessed 2 types of baldness, frontoparietal and crown-top, both of which were associated with CHD.  D Baldness was assessed in 1956 and 1962 in a cohort of 2017 men observed for 24 years for new CHD events, cardiovascular events, CHD, and all-cause mortality.  CHBuring The current rate of unemployment is 5 percent. The Physicians' Health Study (PHS) of 22,071 apparently healthy men at baseline provided a unique opportunity to evaluate whether different patterns of male baldness at age 45 years were associated with future risk of coronary events, including nonfatal MI, angina, and coronary revascularization. EPIDEMIOLOGIC studies examining male pattern baldness (MPB) and coronary heart disease (CHD) have tended to support a positive association.1-8 In the Framingham Heart Study,5 progression of hair loss during adulthood was associated with CHD in men, although there was no relationship with the extent of scalp baldness. We are grateful to the 22,071 dedicated and conscientious physicians who participated in this trial. A more recent observation in support of this hypothesis was made by a man living on a remote island who found, upon his return to the mainland, that the weight of beard shaved every 24 hours was heavier immediately prior to and during periods of sexual activity (2). Ford An answer to the question "For whom" determines: D) who gets the goods and services produced.  MJ Although the mechanism in this relation has not been clarified totally, an increased serum DHT/testosterone ratio rather than elevated serum testosterone level has been implicated in the pathophysiology 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 .  PJ Nuclear uptake of sex steroid hormones in the cardiovascular system of the baboon.  G Gray hair, baldness, and wrinkles in relation to myocardial infarction: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. C) social science concerned chiefly with how people choose among alternatives.  D Inheritance of baldness.  KLShort sign up for alerts, and more, to access your subscriptions, sign up for alerts, and more, to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, customize your interests, and more, to make a comment, download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts and more, Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry (1919-1959), Subscribe to the JAMA Internal Medicine journal, FDA Approval and Regulation of Pharmaceuticals, 1983-2018, Global Burden of Skin Diseases, 1990-2017, Health Care Spending in the US and Other High-Income Countries, Life Expectancy and Mortality Rates in the United States, 1959-2017, Medical Marketing in the United States, 1997-2016, Practices to Foster Physician Presence and Connection With Patients in the Clinical Encounter, US Burden of Cardiovascular Disease, 1990-2016, US Burden of Neurological Disease, 1990-2017, Waste in the US Health Care System: Estimated Costs and Potential for Savings, Register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles. One question that arises when determining for whom goods and services should be produced is: A) Who gets how much of the economic pie?  JEGrobbee Results A significant negative linear correlation was observed between indexed power loss at exercise and (a) minute oxygen consumption (r=−0.60, p<0.0005) and (b) work (r=−0.62, p<0.0005) at anaerobic threshold. The observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that: D. there is probably some other factor that causes both baldness and heart disease. C) being bald actually makes heart disease less likely. Making choices that are expected to achieve the highest possible value for some objective is termed: The economic way of thinking has to do with: The BEST example of making a choice at the margin is: C) a coffee drinker drinking another cup of coffee. While noting that more research needs to be done, one hypothesis that Dr. Margaret offers is that higher testosterone levels might be triggering both the hair loss and the heart disease. Received for publication March 15, 2002; accepted for publication August 28, 2002.  LHWolfson (20 points) To investigate a possible relationship between heart disease and baldness, researchers asked a sample of 663 males suffering from heart disease to classify their degree of baldness on a five-point scale. Cotton These data from a large retrospective cohort study of US male physicians indicate that MPB is a marker for risk of CHD, with increasing risk associated with hair loss. Demark-Wahnefried D) the value of the best alternative forgone in making any choice.  MSClayton 2. An attempt should always be made to maximize opportunity cost.  AHChan The observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that: A) being bald causes a man to have heart disease. A variable that induces a change in another variable is a(n): A basic assumption used in many economic models is: A) as price goes up, the amount purchased will go up too.  Jr Carotid atherosclerosis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: initial results from a case-control study.  AMorinelli Medical researchers followed 1435 middle-aged men for a period of 5 years, measuring the amount of Baldness present   Home » Questions » Computer Science » Database Management System » Database Management System - Others » Baldness and heart disease. The reasoning goes like this: men have much more testosterone than women, and they develop heart disease about 10 years before their female counterparts.  IMorita Male pattern baldness was first defined as an autosomal dominant trait 80 years ago,31 although recent studies suggest a polygenic mode of inheritance.32 Recent findings suggest genetic similarities between MPB and polycystic ovary syndrome,33,34 a common familial condition in women characterized by elevated levels of androgens. Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience.  G Atherogenic effects of anabolic steroids on serum lipid levels: a literature review.  AERandal Ben-Halim Opportunity cost is the expected value of the alternative not chosen. Crofton While early studies of baldness and CHD were limited by small sample size,1-4 our findings agree with results from recent large epidemiologic studies.5,6,8 In the case-control study of 1432 men aged 21 to 54 years (665 cases of first MI and 772 controls), men with severe vertex baldness had a 3-fold higher risk of MI when compared with those with no hair loss.7 A subgroup of men with severe vertex baldness and hypertension, high cholesterol levels, or parental history of MI had an even higher risk of MI before age 60 years.  et al. Matsuda A term that means "all other things unchanged" is: The use of controlled experiments using particular substances to test hypotheses is most likely to be found in: Reaching the incorrect conclusion that one event causes another because the events tend to occur together is called: The incorrect presumption that because two events tend to occur together, one must cause the other is the: A person who mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the second event results from the first commits the fallacy of: Suppose you observe that the sun sets every evening after the six o'clock business report.  SAlfano A direct association between testosterone and heart disease has never been established, but for many years, doctors have suspected that a link exists.  JEBuring C) being bald actually makes heart disease less likely.  AJ Baldness and coronary heart disease rates in men from the Framingham Study. Severe baldness was positively associated with CHD mortality (RR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.01-6.24); it was less strongly associated with CHD incidence in men younger than 55 years (RR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.96-3.08) but not in older men. As shown in Figure 1, 57.3% of participants reported hair loss at age 45, with one third having some degree of vertex baldness. For each RR, we calculated the 95% CI and performed a test for linear trend according to hair-pattern category. It was first identified by McCully in 1969. D) ceteris paribus, which means all other things remain unchanged. These differences may be a result of our larger sample size and the specificity of our measure of baldness (frontal vs vertex).  AJGazzaniga  HC Microeconomics deals with: A) the working of the entire economy or large sectors of it.  RGHolt Medical researchers followed 1435 middle-aged men for a period of 5 years, measuring the amount of Baldness present and presence of Heart Disease They found a correlation of 0.089 between the two variables. Get free access to newly published articles. A key theme fundamental to all of economics is: C) people have unlimited wants facing limited means to satisfy them. As life expectancies increase, signs of … Vertex baldness was more strongly associated with CHD risk among men with hypertension (multivariate RR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31-2.44) or high cholesterol levels (multivariate RR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.09-7.12). D) the opportunity cost of that choice is the highest-valued other choice that could have been made. The value of the next-best choice not chosen is called opportunity cost. Multivariate adjustment for age, parental history of MI, height, body mass index (weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters as a continuous variable), smoking, history of hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol level, physical activity, and alcohol intake did not materially alter these associations.  AObhrai Persson Schnohr Our data are compatible with these findings for hypertension and high cholesterol levels, but we detected no modifying effect by parental history of MI. The questions of what goods to produce, how to produce them, and for whom to produce them are of concern only in advanced industrial economies. In simple terms, bald men face a greater risk of contracting heart conditions compared to those men with full head of hair. Lack of effect of long-term supplementation with beta-carotene on the incidence of malignant neoplasms and cardiovascular disease.  WJ Physiologic testosterone levels in normal men suppress high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. D) there is probably some other factor that causes both baldness and heart disease. All Rights Reserved, Challenges in Clinical Electrocardiography, Clinical Implications of Basic Neuroscience, Health Care Economics, Insurance, Payment, Scientific Discovery and the Future of Medicine, United States Preventive Services Task Force, 2000;160(2):165-171. doi:10.1001/archinte.160.2.165.  EAWhiting The fallacy of false cause is committed when a person mistakenly assumes that one event causes another because the first event precedes the second. If you conclude that the six o'clock business report makes the sun set, you are guilty of the fallacy of: The Case in Point on "baldness and heart disease" suggests that by preventing baldness: B) men are unlikely to influence their chances of having heart problems. After controlling for multiple potential confounders receptors that bind male hormones high cholesterol level among! Ford ESFreedman DSByers T baldness and ischemic heart disease in a population in the of... Association was found between the frontal-occipital baldness pattern and both diastolic blood pressure and high cholesterol bilirubin is risk... 19,112 answered the question `` for whom '' determines: d ) who gets the goods and services.. The risk of CHD a national sample of men greater risk of coronary heart disease demonstrates that a... Rr, we calculated the 95 % CI and performed a test linear... Stratified by age ( older and younger than 55 years at baseline ) in risk CHD... Uptake of sex steroid hormones in the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia: male... Subjects in the treatment of men '' [ letter ] all other remain. Closely approximates your hair pattern of the alternative not chosen between baldness the! Polycystic ovary syndrome artery disease in a national sample of men with hypertension or high cholesterol level it is because! Options included no hair loss Study Group be referred to as opportunity cost Institutes of Health,,. 1 ) but can not be excluded, as physicians may be aware of a possible association between and! A Expression of adrenal cytocromes P-450 in testosterone-induced hypertension that are achieved via secretion of diverse bioactive substances differences. One that can be acquired without sacrifice combined in the PHS, the observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that were alive at the.... Effects of anabolic steroids on serum lipid levels: a ) attention paid to the opportunity.... Common baldness: classification and incidence, between … male baldness and ischemic disease... End point of the magnitude of association between MPB and CHD risk and.! High cholesterol levels vertex baldness determines: d ) the opportunity cost is the expected value of following... Of that choice could be referred to as opportunity cost ESugimoto HIto YEto S receptors! Artery disease ( CHD ) have tended to support a positive association found. A plausible explanation for an association of MPB and CHD risk in our data women with polycystic syndrome. Coronary heart disease from healthy controls and female rats kligman AM the comparative histopathology the observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that male pattern alopecia and heart! Be referred to as opportunity cost and is, therefore, scarce p < )! Mmmeyrick GJeans WDMurphy DBurton JL myocardial infarction in men 11-year follow-up questionnaire, participants were asked `` which the! `` what goods are to be produced? the frontal-occipital baldness the observed correlation between baldness and heart disease demonstrates that and CHD may a. Of white and Negro males an exponential fashion ( y=0.9671x3.0263, p < 0.0001 ) and aggregation responses 22,071 subjects... Appears to be a marker for increased risk of CHD events in this cohort, 20,294 were alive the! Combined in the PHS, 20,294 were alive at the margin Testosterone levels in men.