Mice are more susceptible than rats to styrene-induced nasal toxicity (20 ppm produced nasal toxicity in mice, whereas no nasal toxicity was observed at 200 ppm in rats) and humans are expected to be considerably less sensitive than rodents due to significant anatomical and metabolic differences. The possible toxicological responses caused by plastic can thus be a combination of all of these chemicals. Styrene acrylates copolymer is a chain of polymers consisting of styrene and acrylate which is added to cosmetics for color. Styrene-7,8-oxide is a metabolite of styrene that is genotoxic and can travel by blood in humans. Styrene, like many volatile hydrocarbon chemicals, can cause mild and reversible nervous system effects if workplace exposures are not controlled. Styrene butadiene copolymers resins represent a versatile family of resins for adhesive and sealant development. Campaign for Safe Cosmetics. Overall, this MOA demonstrates that styrene-induced mouse lung tumors are likely qualitatively, or possibly quantitatively, not relevant to humans. Styrene is used predominately in the production of polystyrene plastics and resins. Overall, the human genotoxicity information shows a lack of evidence of consistent relationships between exposure levels and study outcome and a lack of any consistent profile of endpoints. Styrene may also serve as a film-forming agent. In bacteria and yeast cells, styrene generally produced negative genotoxic results, although some studies gave positive findings using exogenous metabolic activation systems, suggesting that styrene can become metabolically activated (presumably to SO) in vitro. The styrene gas that leaked from LG Polymers which has killed at least seven people and created panic in several areas of Visakhapatnam leading … These effects are of possible concern at higher exposures that may be experienced in the workplace, but not for the low exposures associated with consumer uses or the environment. Gene expression was also studied during the course of the 104 weeks of exposure finding significant differences over time and between mice with and without the mouse lung enzyme or with the human lung enzyme. ; Proposition 65 requires businesses to determine if they must provide a warning about exposure to listed chemicals. [15] Styrene acrylates copolymer may contain a small amount of residual styrene. Cosmetic Ingredient Review. Styrene reacts violently 1999 Apr 1; 35(4): 382–389. Towson, MD 21286 Styrene-induced mouse lung tumors are likely not relevant to humans. Annex 13. The tumorigenic response of styrene is dependent on the balance between the rate of activation and rate of detoxification, though information on these rates in humans is not available. Retrieved August 31, 2016, from http://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/styrene.pdf. Styrene is widely used to make plastics and rubber, which are used to manufacture a variety of products, such as insulation, pipes, automobile parts, printing cartridges, food containers, and carpet backing. The styrene concentrations that cause neurobehavioral and neurosensory effects are more than 1,000 times higher than the levels usually found in the environment. It often contains other chemicals that give it a sharp, unpleasant smell. List of 146 substances with endocrine disruption classifications prepared in the Expert meeting. An example is the 2019 explosion of the tanker Stolt Groenland; in this incident 5,250 metric tons of styren… The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. The SCCS cannot conclude on the safety of any of the three styrene/acrylate copolymer nano-entities submitted by the Applicants. Human exposure to styrene vapor. Exposure to styrene may increase the risk of cancer. [2] Styrene can be found in air, water, and soil after release from the manufacture, use, and disposal of styrene-based products. These studies indicate styrene does not cause genetic damage at high concentrations that produce systemic toxicity. Deville 6 polymerized styrene with tin(IV) chloride in 1839. Styrene. [2] EPA: Environmental Protection Agency. WHAT IS STYRENE ACRYLATES COPOLYMER: Styrene acrylates copolymer is a chain of polymers consisting of styrene and acrylate which is added to cosmetics for color. The polymerisation reaction is exothermic; hence, there is a real risk of thermal runawayand explosion. ToxFAQs for Styrene. It is a flammable liquid that is used in the manufacturing of polystyrene plastics, fiberglass, rubber, and latex. [7] Fragranced products are often in an aerosol or spray form, allowing for inhalation. Human studies have primarily examined female fertility whereas fewer studies examined male fertility, congenital malformations, and spontaneous abortions. [6] Safety Assessment of Styrene and Vinyl-type Styrene Copolymers as Used in Cosmetics. [13] IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1995 Mar 1; 37(3): 336–348. At exposures in excess of 50 ppm (8-hour time-weighted average), styrene may cause temporary nervous system effects such as drowsiness and delayed reaction time. [6] If ingested, styrene can be toxic to red blood cells and the liver and if inhaled, it is toxic to the central nervous system. An investigation of the effect of chronic occupational exposure to styrene in workers on olfactory function found no effects on smell with mean styrene exposures of 26 ppm (range 10-60 ppm). Inhalation of styrene following a single exposure can lead to irritation of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, increased nasal secretion, wheezing and coughing. Long-term exposure to styrene in humans results in effects on the central nervous system (CNS), such as headache, fatigue, weakness, and depression, CSN dysfunction, hearing loss, and nerve damage.[18],[19]. This species-specific MOA is further supported by findings in rats. With the exception of a small reduction (up to 10%) in pup body weight, no developmental effects were observed at 150 ppm in the rat 2-generation reproductive/ developmental neurotoxicity study. Indicator tests detecting sister chromatid (SCE), DNA strand breaks, DNA methylation, and DNA adducts have also produced variable results for styrene. The human carcinogenic potential of styrene has been evaluated in a number of epidemiology studies of workers employed in three industrial settings: the fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRP) industry, manufacture of styrene monomer and polystyrene, and production of synthetic rubber (styrene-butadiene rubber, SBR). Styrene (S) was among the first monomers to be polymerized cationically. However, reduced pup growth and pup developmental delays were seen postnatally in rats at exposure levels (300-500 ppm) causing, in some cases, maternal toxicity. Five of the mouse studies found increases in lung tumors identified as bronchoalveolar adenomas or adenocarcinomas. [17] Ohyama KI, Satoh K, Sakamoto Y, Ogata A, Nagai F. Effects of prenatal exposure to styrene trimers on genital organs and hormones in male rats. MORE... Styrene is also one of almost 3,000 chemicals listed by the International Fragrance Association (IFRA) as being used in fragrance. The CYP2F2 metabolism has been shown to be a key event (gateway) to styrene mouse lung toxicity as evidenced by both short- and long-term studies in mice where the CYP2F2 enzyme is absent have completely attenuated lung toxicity. Page last reviewed: December 4, 2014. [8] Exposure to solvents including styrene can result in an increased risk of breast cancer. Studies of general population environmental and consumer styrene exposure and cancer are less informative than the worker studies, but the available evidence does not suggest these low exposures are a concern. Styrene isn’t known to leach out of hard plastics, but some evidence suggests that it can leach out of foam food containers and cups when food or drinks are hot – not when they’re cold. In our 2016 report focusing on kids’ makeup products our lab results found trace amounts of residual styrene in one stick-on nail product. According to Tox Town, a website run by the US National Library of Medicine, styrene is also found in vehicle exhaust, cigarette smoke, and in natural foods like fruits and vegetables. Formulations prepared with SBC resin as base polymer offer a unique combination of properties like tensile strength, flexibility, tackiness, adhesion, etc. WHAT TO LOOK FOR ON THE LABEL: Styrene/acrylates copolymer, styrene butadiene copolymer, polystyrene, styrene copolymer, styrene resin, ethylbenzene, and vinylbenzene. Neurological impacts reported include neurobehavioral and neurosensory effects (impaired olfaction, audition, and color discrimination). Error: (#10) This endpoint requires the 'manage_pages' or 'pages_read_user_content' permission or the 'Page Public Content Access' feature. [5] The product that contained styrene did not have fragrance as a listed ingredient, but it is theoretically possible that fragranced ingredients could contain trace levels of styrene. Researchers have conducted studies in workers and in laboratory animals to investigate the potential effects styrene exposure may have on hearing. Polystyrene can be solid or foamed. [1] Leslie HA. Increases in malignant mammary tumors were found in all styrene exposure groups in one study and in a second study at 600 ppm styrene but not at 1000 ppm, but a third study found a dose-related decrease in malignant mammary tumors at all styrene concentrations (50-1000) ppm styrene. Studies of general population environmental and consumer exposure and cancer are less informative than the occupational cohort studies given generally lower number of subjects and imprecise exposure information. Available online: http://www.ifraorg.org/en-us/ingredients#.V8nKn-krKUk Accessed September 2016. 2014 Jul. Styrene is on the Proposition 65 list because it can cause cancer. There is the potential for styrena acrylates copolymer to be contaminated with styrene, a possible carcinogen. This study found lung toxicity in mice that retained the lung enzyme, whereas mice with this enzyme absent or with the human enzyme present exhibited no lung toxicity. [11] Wennborg H, Yuen J, Axelsson G, Ahlbom G, Gustavsson P, Sasco AJ. Toxicity of sulfothreenaphtilenfurane. The best information currently available on the threshold for hearing deficits in humans comes from a study of German boat-building workers that found no hearing loss for current exposures of 7.6–15.2 ppm and six years of exposure to 39-49 ppm, whereas workers that had work exposures of about 30-50 ppm for approximately 15 years and experienced approximately five years of median TWA styrene exposure of 80 ppm had evidence of hearing loss. [9],[10],[11], Cancer: Styrene is a reasonably anticipated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer[12] and by the National Toxicology Program. Styrene. Styrene is used predominately in the production of polystyrene plastics and resins. Washington DC. Research studies and literature reviews are sponsored with the intention of making regulators and the public aware of this information via publication in peer-reviewed journals. Visual function deficits are reported in rats and monkeys exposed to styrene, although color vision impairment has not been specifically examined. Created for consumers, educators, the media, and industry employees, youknowstyrene.org is a reliable, one-stop source of information on styrene and styrene-based products. Signs and Symptoms of Styrene butadiene polymer Poisoning: NOTE! Cosmetic Ingredient Review. Several studies have reported elevated serum prolactin concentrations in FRP workers associated with high styrene exposures, however, the prolactin levels reported were within normal ranges and adverse effects associated with these findings have not been identified. Styrene is a colorless liquid that evaporates easily and smells sweet. Among the chemicals used to manufacture polymer composites, few are as widely used as styrene. [16] European Commission. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/docum/pdf/bkh_annex_13.pdf. [17], Other effects: Short-term exposure to styrene in humans results in mucous membrane and eye irritation, and gastrointestinal effects. ... Styrene block polymers with butadiene are available with a styrene content of 25% to 50%, and the 4Additional properties of styrene are presented in Table 3. It dissolves in some liquids but doesn't dissolve easily in water. Sorry! Acute exposure to styrene via inhalation at 376 ppm for 25 minutes resulted in nausea, a sense of inebriation, and headache, along with abnormal performance on the Romberg test. Available online:  http://www.safecosmetics.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/Pretty-Scary_2016.pdf. Available online: https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/risk/hhra/recordisplay.cfm?deid=39304, [3] ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. [6] If ingested, styrene can be toxic to red blood cells and the liver and if inhaled, it is toxic to the central nervous system. [9],[10],[11] Additionally, upon exposure to light and air, styrene undergoes polymerization and oxidation, with the formation of peroxides. Styrene. [3], Styrene acrylates copolymer may contain a small amount of residual styrene. At 100 °C it will polymerise at a rate of ~2% per hour, and more rapidly than this at higher temperatures. 400 E Joppa Road, Suite 108 While much of SIRC’s work has focused on addressing styrene’s carcinogenic potential, researchers also have investigated styrene’s potential effects on non-cancer health effects, including: neurotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, and genotoxicity. Some of these chemicals are defined as priority pollutants, which are regulated by governmental agencies because of their toxicity or persistence in organisms and food webs. What is styrene? Our tests did not reveal detectable levels of styrene in fragranced products tested. [13] Styrene is also listed on the California Proposition 65 list of known carcinogens to cause cancer. The human carcinogenic potential of styrene has been evaluated in a number of epidemiology studies of workers employed in three industrial settings: the fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRP) industry, manufacture of styrene monomer and polystyrene, and production of synthetic rubber (styrene … Even in trace amounts it is concerning to have the presence of a carcinogen in products marketed to children and adults. 41.1.1 Historical Background. Tiunov LA, Zhuvov VG, et al. No symptoms for this chemical or chemical group are available. The highest exposures to styrene occur in workplaces that produce styrene or use styrene to make other materials. A 2009 study of German boat-building workers found no significant associations between color vision and styrene exposures up to 50-100 ppm. Overall, the available information indicates that styrene does not interfere with the estrogen-androgen-thyroid systems. 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